Substation Equipment and Control Relay



Electrical Power System substations provide a critical link to power grid. This training is designed to them who want to know on Substation Equipment and Control Relay Protection. After completion this training participants will have gained a theoretical and applied understanding of power system Substation and control relay protection. The performance of Substation and control relay protection includes of: Transformer, instrument transformers, transducers, protective relays, and circuit breakers is first addressed. These devices are then integrated into coordinated protective systems for generators, transformers, transmission lines, reactors, capacitor banks, system buses, etc.

Although basic protection concepts are hardware-independent, the application of electromagnetic, solid state, and microprocessor-based relays will also be discussed. Trade-offs between reliability, selectivity, speed, simplicity, and economy are emphasized.



  • After completion this training participants will have gained a theoretical and applied understanding of power system Substation Equipment and control relay protection
  • Introduces and acquaints attendees with different components used in Substation Equipment and control relay
  • Ability to perform some basic essential calculations required for relay settings
  • Add knowledge on how to improve security level by designing better protection systems with aim to improve performance.



1. Introduction to Substation Equipment and Control Relay

2. Power Transformers-Bushings, On-load Tap Changer (OLTC), Buchholtz Relay, Conservator, Breather, Cooling Arrangements-Methods of Cooling, Transformer Tests

3. Switchgears-Circuit Breaker

  • Types: MOCB, ABCB, VCB, SF6

4. Isolator

  • Types Earth switch
  • Bus Bar


  • Lighting Arrestors/Lighting Mask

6. Power Line Carrier Communication (PLCC)

  • Principle
  • Purpose
  • Types of Coupling

7. Relays

  • Types
  • Functions
  • Constructional Details

8. Protection System

  • Philosophy
  • Types
  • Protection of Transformer/Reactor
  • Motor
  • Line/Feeder Generator
  • Bus

9. Fundamentals of Protection

  • Protective Relaying in Substations
  • Power Transformer Protection
  • Bus Zone Protection
  • Protection of Transmission Lines
  • Carrier Assisted Distance Protection

10. Protective Gear, Reliability, Selectivity, Speed, Stability and Sensitivity, Circuit Quantities & Conventions, Fault Calculations

11. Relay Input Sources

  • VTs
  • CTs
  • CVTs
  • CCVTs
  • Optical Voltage and Current Transducers

12. Grounding

  • Types of Grounding
  • Earth Testing and Treatment
  • Earth Design
  • Step Potential
  • Neutral Grounding Reactor

13. Auxiliary Facilities: DG Set Station Battery System

14. Cables

  • Types
  • Control Cables
  • Power Cables
  • Cable Termination and Jointing

15. Substation Operation: Grid Operation

16. Over voltages and Protection of Substation Equipment, Switching Over voltages in EHV Substations, Switching Over voltage in Medium Voltage Substations, Surge Arresters (Lightning Arrester)

17. Rating of Surge Arrester, Calculation of Discharge Current for Shielded Substations, Installation as Surge Arresters, Protection of Substation Transformers by Surge Arresters

18. Introduction to Substation Control, Control Room and Control Panels, Programmable Equipment for Protective Relaying Measurements and Control (PPRMC), Microprocessor Based Relays & Integrated Protection, Control and Automation

19. Substation Maintenance

  • Types-Routine, Preventive, Planned, Predictive, Break-down, Emergency Maintenance, On-line Maintenance of Different Equipments
  • Transformer/Reactor Maintenance
  • Switchgear and Protection Maintenance






Cae Study




Training Kit



Lunch + 2x Coffee Break


Pick Up Participant (Yogyakarta)

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